Students were lead by instructors from BASICS and Zero-Order Architecture through a five day workshop investigating digital fabrication and tools such as Grasshopper, Karamba and Kangaroo. Drawing inspiration from Buckminster Fuller’s Plydome, the students constructed a 1:1 pavilion in Pisa utilising simple lasercut planar elements.

Text and Images from BASICS:

**Physical modeling**

* During the physical simulation the structure was analyzed to in order to understand its mechanical behavior. All the stresses are concentrated in the ridge of each panel during the folding process, creating in this way an arc in the transversal direction, which gives stiffness to the overall structure.*

**Geometry**

*The steps of the algorithm we applied were:*

* 1) generating the hexagon-grid vault with Kangaroo*

* 2) using geometrical constraints to find the shape of each panel*

* 3) given the geometry, calculating the stresses in the structure.*

* Geometrical constraints were applied to understand how the panels bend during construction, which defined also the form of every panel. Learning from the behavior of the plydome by Fuller, we bent the panels in such a way that they follow the shape of cylinders which are placed on the grid shell edges.*

**Analysis**

* The vault behavior is in-between a linear grid shell and an active bending structure. It combines the tessellation of the first with bending initially flat boards to single curved and thus stiffer elements. In this way we are able to control the distribution of stresses in the structure by the curvature of the panels thus achieving a more uniform distribution of stresses in the elements. The process we followed to calculate the stresses starts from the geometry and the given external loads. Once we have the final shape, namely we have the curvature in the two main directions of each panel, we are able to calculate the momentum necessary to bend the panels to their target geometry. All the panels have a pattern which evolves following the curvature of the dome.*

**Organizers:** Basics – Zero-Order Architecture

**Collaborators:** DESTEC (Department of Energy, Systems, Territory and Construction Engineering of Pisa University), FabLab Cascina, Karamba

**Tutors:** Rodrigo Rubio, Giorgio Castellano, Jan Paclt, Alessandro Mattoccia

**Participants:** Anna Continanza, Chiara Picchi, Cristina Braccini, Elisa Betti, Martina Di Bugno, Francesco Pasi, Giovanni Inghirami, Filippo Iardella, Marco Mori, Paolo Carboni, Giulia Grassi, Francesca Chiappa